This book examines the function of the Sahel region of Africa as an important wintering area for long-distance migrant birds. It describes the challenges the birds have to cope with - climate change, of course, and rapid man-made habitat changes related to deforestation, irrigation and reclamation of wetlands. How have all these changes affected the birds, and have birds adapted to these changes? Can we explain the changing numbers of breeding birds in Europe by changes in the Sahel, or vice versa ? Second edition, reprint with minor corrections.