=A guide with illustrations or photographs for identification
While a newer field guide to the birds of Panama is available, Ridgely’s text provides valuable clues to identification and behavior not to be found elsewhere. In the second edition, published in 1989, the authors completely revised and expanded to include all the birds of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras: approximately 200 new species were added to the material in the 1976 edition. Over 300 additional species, some of them Panamanian, were illustrated. Sixteen new plates were added, and three of the original plates were replaced by improved versions. Also included in the revised edition was expanded and updated information on bird finding in Panama, prepared with the assistance of two of Panama's best resident birders. The book also contains a special section outlining developments in Panama ornithology and conservation. A complete checklist is included, with a column for each of the four countries covered. Also includes an index of English names and a separate index of scientific names. Forty color plates sit in the center of the book, opposite concise identification text. Eight further plates of additional species is found near the end of the book.